**The NVS TGT Syllabus is readily available on the official NVS website. As candidates gear up for the NVS TGT Exam in 2023, it is imperative to carefully review the syllabus to grasp its nuances and depth. In this article, we provide an in-depth examination of the NVS TGT Syllabus, ensuring candidates have a comprehensive understanding of what to expect.**

## (1).**General Awareness/Current Affairs:**

- Current events and developments in India and the world
- Indian history and culture
- Geography
- Indian economy
- General science
- Sports and awards
- Books and authors
- Important days and dates

## (2).**General English:**

- Vocabulary
- Grammar and usage
- Comprehension
- Sentence structure
- Synonyms and antonyms
- Idioms and phrases

## (3).**General Hindi:**

- शब्द रचना (Word Formation)
- व्याकरण (Grammar)
- संधि/समास (Sandhi/Samas)
- मुहावरे और लोकोक्तियाँ (Idioms and Proverbs)
- अलंकरण (Figures of Speech)

## (4).**Teaching Aptitude:**

- Child development and pedagogy
- Teaching-learning process
- Educational psychology
- Motivation and learning
- Classroom management

## (5).**Current Affairs and General Knowledge:**

Keep yourself updated with current events, national and international news, and important developments

## (6).**Subject-specific content**

**:** This will depend on the subject you are applying for as a TGT. Common subjects include Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, English, and Hindi. The syllabus for each subject will cover relevant topics based on the subject’s curriculum.

## NVS TGT-HINDI LATEST SUBJECT RELATED SYLLABUS -2023

**:-टी.जी.टी. हिन्दी पद****गद्य साहित्य**- हिन्दी साहित्य का उद्भव, विकास एवं गद्य साहित्य की विधाएं• उपन्यास पर आधारित प्रश्न
- कहानीपर आधारित प्रश्न
- नाटक/एकांकी पर आधारित प्रश्न
- निबंध पर आधारित प्रश्न
- यात्रा/ वृतांत पर आधारित प्रश्न
- संस्मरण / रेखाचित्र पर आधारित प्रश्न
- आत्मकथा / जीवनी पर आधारित प्रश्न
- रिपोर्ताज पर आधारित प्रश्न
**काव्य भाग :-●**- • हिन्दी काव्य का विकास
- आदिकालीन काव्य पर प्रश्न
- भक्तिकालीन काव्य पर प्रश्न (निर्गुण काव्य, सूफी काव्य)
- रीतिकालीन काव्य पर प्रश्न
- आधुनिककालीन काव्य पर प्रश्न
- (भारतेन्दु युग, द्विवेदी युग, छायावाद, प्रगतिवाद, प्रयोगवाद, नई कविता, समकालीन कविता )
- –
**हिन्दी भाषा का विकास एंव व्यावहारिक व्याकरणः-** - वाक्य रचना• अलंकार•
- हिन्दी भाषा का विकास इसकी उप-भाषाएं एंव बोलियां
- देवनागरी लिपि एवं उसका विकास
- वर्ण विचार- (उच्चारण, वर्तनी एवं संधि )
- शब्द विचार और शब्द रचना (पर्याय, विलोम, अनेकार्थक श्रुति- सम – भिन्नार्थक शब्द इत्यादि)
- विकारी शब्द , अविकारी शब्द-
- शब्द शक्तियांमुहावरे एवं लोकोक्तियां
- अपठित गद्यांश / पद्यांशसगुण काव्यअविकारी शब्द
- वाक्य रचना (रचना और अर्थ के आधार पर ), पद परिचय
- संविधान में हिंदी की स्थिति ( संपर्क भाषा हिंदी, प्रयोजन मूलक हिंदी, कार्यालय हिंदी, मानक हिंदी

## NVS TGT-ENGLISH SUBJECT RELATED SYLLABUS -2023

**Reading Comprehension**

(Section – A)

(Section – A)

**Ability to comprehend, analyze and interpret an unseen text Three/four unseen texts of varying lengths (150-250 words) with a variety of objective type,**

** multiple choice questions ( including questions to test vocabulary) testing factual and global comprehension.**

**Grammar and Usage**

(Section – B)

(Section – B)

**Ability to apply the knowledge of syntax, language/grammatical items and touse them accurately in context.**

**The following grammatical structures will be tested:**

**(1) Tenses(2) Modals(3) Voice(4) Subject – verb concord(5) Connectors(6) Clauses(7) Parts of speech(8) Punctuation(9) Sequencing to form a coherent sentence or a paragraph**

**Literature**

(Section – C)

(Section – C)

**To test the candidate’s familiarity with the works of writers of different genresand periods of English Literature.**

**The candidate should have a thorough knowledge of :-**

**Shakespeare’s works.****Romantic Period ( e.g. Shelley, Wordswoth, Keats, Coleridge, Byron etc.)****19th & 20th Century American and English Literature (e.g. Robert Frost****Hemingway, Ted Hudges, Whitman, Hawthorne, Emily Dickinson, Bernard Shaw etc.)****Modern Indian Writing in English (e.g. Anita Desai, Vikram Seth, Nissim****Ezekiel, K.N. Daruwala, Ruskin Bond, R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Khushwant Singh etc.)****Modern Writings in English from different parts of the world.**

## NVS TGT-MATHEMATICS SUBJECT RELATED SYLLABUS -2023

### Real Number:

**Representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the numberline. **

**Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals, onthe number line through successive magnification.**

**Rational numbers as recurring / terminating decimals. Examples of non-recurring /non-terminating decimals. Existence of non-rational numbers**

**(irrational numbers) and their representation on the number line. Explainingthat every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line andconversely, every point on the number line represents a unique real number.Laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive realbases. Rationalization of real numbers. Euclid’s division lemma, FundamentalTheorem of Arithmetic. Expansions of rational numbers in terms ofterminating / non-terminating recurring decimals.**

### Elementary Number Theory:

- Peano’s Axioms,
- Principle of Induction;
- First Principal, Second Principle, Third Principle,
- Basis Representation Theorem,
- Greatest Integer Function, Test of Divisibility,
- Euclid’s algorithm,
- The Unique Factorisation Theorem,
- Congruence,
- Chinese Remainder Theorem,
- Sum of divisors of a number.
- Euler’s totient
- function,
- Theorems of Fermat and Wilson.

### Matrices

- R1, R2, R3 as vector spaces over R and concept of Rn.
- Standard basis for each of them. Linear Independence and examples of different bases.
- Subspaces of R2,R3.
- Translation, Dilation, Rotation, Reflection in a point, line and plane.
- Matrix form of basic geometric transformations.
- Interpretation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for such transformations and eigenspaces as invariant subspaces.
- Matrices in diagonal form. Reduction to diagonal form upto matrices of order 3.
- Computation of matrix inverses using elementary row operations. Rank of matrix,
- Solutions of a system of linear equations using matrices.

### Polynomials:

- Definition of a polynomial in one variable, its coefficients, with examples and counter examples, its terms, zero polynomial.
- Degree of a polynomial, Constant, linear, quadratic, cubic polynomials; monomials, binomials,trinomials.
- Factors and multiples. Zeros / roots of a polynomial / equation.
- Remainder Theorem with examples and analogy to integers.
- Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem.
- Factorization of quadratic and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem.
- Algebraic expressions and identitiesand their use in factorization of polynomials.
- Simple expressions reducible to these polynomials.

### Linear Equations in two variables:

- Introduction to the equation in two variables.
- Proof that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers,
- Algebraic and graphical solutions.

### Pair of Linear Equations in two variables:

**Pair of linear equations in two variables.****Geometric representation of different****possibilities of solutions / inconsistency.****Algebraic conditions for number of****solutions.****Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by****substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication.**

### Quadratic Equations:

**Standard form of a quadratic equation.****Solution of the quadratic equations****(only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e. by using****quadratic formula.****Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.****Relation between roots and coefficients,****Symmetric functions of the roots of an equation. Common roots.**

### Arithmetic Progressions:

**Derivation of standard results of finding the nth term and sum of first n terms.**

### Inequalities:

**Elementary Inequalities, Absolute value, Inequality of means, Cauchy –Schwarz Inequality, Tchebychef’s Inequality.**

### Combinatorics:

**Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion,****Pigeon Hole Principle, Recurrence****Relations, Binomial Coefficients.**

### Calculus:

**Sets. Functions and their graphs : polynomial, sine, cosine, exponential and****logarithmic functions.****Step function,****Limits and continuity.****Differentiation,****Methods of differentiation like Chain rule, Product rule and Quotient rule.****Second order derivatives of above functions.****Integration as reverse process of****differentiation.****Integrals of the functions introduced above.**

### Euclidean Geometry:

**Axioms / postulates and theorems.****The five postulates and Euclid.****Equivalent****versions of the fifth postulate.****Relationship between axiom and theorem.****Theorems and lines and angles, triangles and quadrilaterals,****Theorems on areas****of parallelograms and triangles****, Circles, theorems on circles, Similar triangles,****Theorem on similar triangles. Constructions.****Ceva’s Theorem, Menalus Theorem, Nine Point Circle, Simson’s Line, Centres of****Similitude of Two Circles, Lehmus Steiner Theorem, Ptolemy’s Theorem.**

### Coordinate Geometry:

**The Cartesian plane,****coordinates of a point,****Distance between two points and****section formula,****Area of a triangle.**

### Areas and Volumes:

**Area of a triangle using Hero’s formula and its application in finding the area of****a quadrilateral.****Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres****(including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones.****Frustum of a cone.****Area of a circle: area of sectors and segments of a circle.**

### Trigonometry:

**Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right – angled triangle.****Relationships between the rations.****Trigonometric identities. Trigonometric****ratios of complementary angles.****Heights and distances.**

### Statistics:

**Introduction to Statistics : Collection of data, presentation of data, tabular****form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms, frequency polygons,****qualitative analysis of data to choose the correct form of presentation for the****collected data.****Mean, median, mode of ungrouped data. Mean, median and****mode of grouped data.****Cumulative frequency graph.**

### Probability:

**Elementary Probability and basic laws****. Discrete and Continuous Random****variable, Mathematical Expectation,****Mean and Variance of Binomial, Poisson****and Normal distribution.****Sample mean and Sampling Variance.****Hypothesis****testing using standard normal variate.****Curve Fitting. Correlation and****Regression.**

## NVS TGT-(SOCIAL SCIENCE) SUBJECT RELATED SYLLABUS -2023

### (HISTORY)

#### Contemporary World

**a. Industrial Revolutionb. Economic Depresseionc. Labour & Peasant Class issuesd. Growth of industries in India in twentieth centurye. Features of colonial society in India**

#### French Revolution

**f. Causesg. Eventsh. Impacti. Consequences**

**The Revolt of 1857****Indian Freedom Struggle – 1885 to 1947****Russian Revolution – 1917, Causes, Events, Impact on Russia and the World,****Consequences**

#### Rise of Socialism

**Philosophy of Karl Marx**

**Socialism in Europe****Impact of Socialism**

**Rise of Fascist Forces in Germany & ItalyThe Two World Wars and the establishment of UN**

## GEOGRAPHY

#### Introduction to solar system; origin of Earth

**Motions of the Earth: Rotation, Revolution, Occurrence of Day and night; change of seasons;****Latitudes and Longitudes; Finding time.****Earth’s Interior: Origin of continents and ocean basins Wegener’s Continental****drift theory,****Theory of Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes, Folding and****faulting**

#### Rocks and minerals:

**Types of rocks; soil formation; major types andcharacteristics.**

#### Agents of gradation:

**Weathering, mass wasting,****running water,****wind****, glaciers,****sea waves and karsat topography**

#### Climate:

**Atmosphere – Composition and structure, elements of weather and climate****Insulation – Heat Budget, Heating and cooling of atmosphere, Conduction,****Convection, Solar Radiation, Terrestrial radiation, Advection, Temperature,****Factors controlling temperature, distribution of temperature-horizontal and****vertical****Pressure – Pressure belts, winds, cyclones and anti-cyclone****Evaporation, condensation and precipitation and their forms: Humidity, rainfall****and its types****World climates – Classification, greenhouse effect, global warming and global****climate change.****Water (Oceans): Distribution of water bodies on the Earth’s surface;****hydrological cycle.**

**Ocean – Submarine relief, distribution of temperature and salinity; movement****of ocean water’s-waves, tides currents of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean****Maps and Scales – Definition and classification****Finding directions, conventional signs****Techniques of representing relief features on map; contours, hachures, Hill****shading, layer tinting.****Representation of climatic data; line and Bar Graph, (Climograph) Isotherms,****isobars and isohyets**

**Biosphere: Ecology, type of Eco-System, structure and functions of Eco-system-****Food Chain, Food Web, World Biomes, Ecological Balance, Biodiversity and its****conservation.**

#### India (Size and Location)

Physical features of India

**Geological Structure, Physiographic divisions, drainage system and its****evolution.****Climate: origin and mechanism of Indian monsoon, Seasons of India,****Classification of Climate of India (Coeppen’s) Soil: Types and distribution:****Natural Vegetation: types and distribution.**

#### Population:

**Growth and Distribution of population: Causes & Factors****Migration-Causes and consequences****Population theories & their relevance-Malthus, Demographic transition – theory****Population composition and its Attributes: Population and sustainable****development;****Population as a resource; Population problems and polices with reference to****India**

#### Resources and Development

**Meaning, nature and Components of resources and environment;****Resources,****environment and technology interface: classification of resources.****Distribution, utilization, economic and environmental significance and****conservation of water, Minerals, Forests and fisheries; production and****distribution of major crops, wild life resource and energy resources.**

#### Agriculture

**Wet and dry agriculture, Intensive, Extensive, shifting, commercial andplantation agricultural development and problems, crop intensity, major crops**

#### Manufacturing Industries

**Classification, locational factors, types and distribution, industrial clusters ofIndia, Production and distribution of sugar, Cotton Textile Iron and Steel,chemicals and electronic industries.**

#### Life lines of National Economy

**Means of transportation and communication, Roads, Railways, waterways andairways, oil and gas pipelines, National electric grid, radio, television satelliteand computersInternational trade – Changing pattern of India’s foreign trade, sea ports andairports:Tourism as trade.**

#### Understanding Disaster and Hazards.

**Type of Disasters – Natural & Manmade**

**Disaster Management:Becoming a Disaster manager. Components of**

Disaster Management.**Disaster risk reduction: Disaster risk management. Understanding**

Disaster mitigation. Specific Hazards and mitigation.**Common manmade Disasters and their prevention****Community based Disaster management and social planning for**

Disasters.**Tsunami : The killer sea waves.****Survival skills: during and after Disaster.**

**Alternative Communication system****Safe construction Practices****Sharing Responsibilities****Planning ahead.**

#### Components of production

#### People as Resource

- Economic activities / non economic activities

- Population
- Education
- Health
- Unemployment / Employment

#### Poverty as a challenge

- Poverty line
- Poverty & inequality
- Policies for poverty reduction
- Poverty estimates

#### Food Security in India

- Food Security
- Green revolution
- Buffer Stock
- Issue Price / Support Price
- Role of co-operative societies in food security

#### Development

Growth / Development and structural development:

- Growth and distribution, sustainable agricultural growth
- Growth structural changes
- Population and human resource development
- Purchasing power parity (PPP)
- Main features of Indian Economy at the time of Independence
- Economic development
- Gross enrolment ratio
- Foreign trade & Economic development
- Development & under development
- Distribution of Income / factors of development

#### Sectors of the Economy

- Classification of Sectors like – Primary / Secondary / Organized /

Unorganized / Public / Private Sector - Small and Large Industry
- Performance of the Public Sector
- Privatization
- Employment growth in the Industrial Sector

#### Money & Credit

- Indian Monetary System
- Function of money
- Banks:

Central Bank function

Commercial Banks - Self help Groups (SHGs)
- Debt trap
- Demand of money & supply of money
- Financial markets
- Money and capital market
- Monetary aggregates in India

## CIVICS

**Power sharingFederalismDemocracy and DiversityPolitical partiesElectionsChallenges to DemocracyPopular struggle and movements – like in Nepal, Bolivia**

#### Democracy:

**Concept****Salient Features****Local Self Government****Elections****Democracy in India & the World**

#### Indian Constitution:

**Framing of the constitutionAdoption of the constitutionWorking of Institutions – ParliamentJudiciary**

**Fundamental Rights**

## NVS TGT-( SCIENCE) SUBJECT RELATED SYLLABUS -2023

### EFFECT OF CURRENT

**Potential; potential difference ohms law; series combination of resistors,****parallel combination of resistors; Power dissipation due to current; Inter****relation between P,V,I and R. Magnetic field & magnetic lines, Magnetic field****due to current carrying conductor; Fleming left hand rule, Electromagnetic****Induction; Induced Potential Difference, Induced current; Direct current,****Alternating current; Frequency of AC, Advantage of Electronic Motor &****Electronic Generator.**

### LIGHT

**Convergence and Divergence of light; Images formed by a Concave Mirror;****related concepts, centre of curvature; principles axis, optic centre, focus, focal****length, Refraction & laws of refraction. Images formed by a convex lens;****functioning of vision and remedies.****Applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.****Appreciation of concept of refraction index; Twinkling of stars; Dispersion of****light; Scattering of light.**

### SOURCES OF ENERGY

**Different forms of Energy, Leading to different sources for human use: FossilFuels, solar energy; Biogas; Wind; Water and Tidal Energy; Nuclear Energy.Renewable versus non-renewable sources.**

#### MOTION: FORCE AND NEWTON’S LAWS.

**Displacement,****Velocity, uniform & non-uniform motion along a straight line,****acceleration distance-time and velocity,****Time graphs for uniform and uniformly****accelerated motion;****Equations of motion by graphical method Elementary idea****of uniform circular motion.****Force and Motion; Newton’s laws of motion Inertia of a body; Inertia and Mass,****Momentum Force and acceleration,****Elementary idea of conservation of****momentum, Action and Reaction forces.**

#### GRAVITATION: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

**Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of gravitation of the earthgravity, acceleration due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall. Work done bya force energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; law of conservation ofenergy.**

#### FLOATATION

**Thrust and Pressure, Archimedes Principle, Buoyancy, Elementary idea ofrelative density.**

#### SOUND

**Nature of Sound and its Propagation in various media, Speed of Sound, Rangeof hearing in Humans; Ultra Sound, Reflection of sound; Echo and SONAR;Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only)**

#### MATTER-NATURE AND BEHAVIOUR: STATES OF MATTER

**Gases, liquids, solids, plasma and Bose-Enstein condenstate ,****types of****intermolecular forces.****Classification of matter into mixures and pure substances.****Henry’s Law.****Concentration of solutions.****Colloids-phases of colloids, Tyndall effect, Brownian movement. Suspension.****Properties of matter. Measurement of properties of matter-S.I. system of units,****physical and chemical changes****Laws of chemical combination****Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro law, atomic and molecular masses, average atomic****mass,****mole concept and molar masses, percentage compostion.**

#### STRUCTURE OF ATOM

**Dalton’s atomic theory,****Discharge tube experiments,****J J Thomson’s model of****atom,****Rutherford’s model,****Bohr’s model of atom,****electronic configuration,**

**formation of ions,****Characterisation of elements as metals,****metalloids, or non-metals, isotopes (their applications), isobars and isotones.**

#### PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS

**Mendeleev’s periodic law, Periodic properties of elements, trends in the periodsand groups: Improtance of the periodic table, position of hydrogen in theperiodic table.**

#### CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

**Nature and behaviour Acid, Basis and Salts:****Classical definition of acids and****bases,****Bronsted-Lowry theory,****Lewis conceipt of acid and bases, relative****strengths of acids and bases,****logarithmic or p scale-pH,pOH and pkw, ionic****equilibria in a solution.**

**Action of indicators on acids and bases, sources of acid and bases, Salt-****Classification of salts and their pH**

#### CHEMICAL REACTIONS

**Formulation of chemical equations, balancing chemical equations,Types of chemical equations with examples**

#### METALS AND NON-METALS

**Characters of metals and non-metals including all properties and applications****Occurrence of metals in nature: ores and minerals, enrichment of ores –metallurgical operations****Corrosion: rusting of iron – prevention of corrosion**

#### CARBON COMPOUNDS

**Position of carbon in the periodic table. Concept of hybridization and shapes of****molecules structural formula and molecular models,****types of reactions****undergone by organic compounds,****homologous series of compounds having****different functional groups****, isomerism,****IUPAC nomenclature of organic****compounds.****Hydrocarbons – their classification formation of coal and petroleum****Industrial source, preparation and properties of alkanes**

**Alcohols: Preparation and properties. Qualitative analysis of alcohols, iodoform****test, effect of alcohols on living beings.****Carboxylic acids: Preparation and properties.****Functional group analysis of carboxylic acid.****Soaps, detergents, biodegradable detergents. Carbon fibres.**

#### CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

**Pollution of river water, Ganga action plan for improving quality of water,****Need for sustainable management of natural resources.****Development of non- conventional energy resources to prevent pollution and****atmospheric conservation.**

#### MAN MADE MATERIAL

**Ceramics, cement, porcelain, glass, carbon fibres, soaps and detergents,polymers, fibres and plastics.**

#### Life Processes

**What are life Processes.****Need for Nutrition.****Different modes of Nutrition in animals.****What is Photosynthesis.****Various steps of holozoic nutrition.****Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.**

**Transportation in Human beings.****Transportation in Plants.****Transportation in animals.****Excretion in animals including Human beings.****Excretion in Plants.**

#### Control & Co-Ordination.

- Animals – nervous system.
- Basic unit of Nervous System in animals.
- Reflex action.
- Human Brain.
- Co-Ordination in plants.
- Geotropism – Positive, Negative.
- Hormones in animals.
- Endocrine & Exocrine glands.

#### Reproduction

- Importance of variation.
- Modes of Reproduction used by single organisms.
- Sexual Reproduction in plants and animals.
- Reproduction in Human beings.
- What happens when egg is not fertilised.
- Modes of avoiding pregnancy (family planning)

#### Heredity and Evolution

- What is heredity?
- Medals Law of inheritance.
- How is sex determined?
- Evolution & Classification.
- Acquired and inherited traits.
- Homologus and Analogous organs.
- What are fossils?
- Human Evolution.

#### The Human eye and the colourful world.

- Structure of eye
- Defects of eye and their correction

#### Natural resources

The fundamental unit of Life

- What are living organisms made of?
- Structure organization of cell

#### Tissues

- Define tissue
- Types of plants tissue and animals tissues

#### Diversity of living organisms

- Basis of Classification.
- Classification & Evolution.
- Hierarchy of classification – groups.
- Plantae, Animalia.
- Nomenclature.

#### Why do we fall ill

- Health & its failure.
- Diseases and their causes
- Types of diseases- Infectious, Noninfectious.
- Prevention of diseases
- Smmunisation

### NATURAL RESOURCES

#### 1. Our Environment:

**Atmosphere, roll of atmosphere in climate control, wind, rain, environmental****pollution:****Global warming and green house effect, acid rain, particulate pollutants, smog,****formation of photochemical smog.****Formation of ozone and its break down ozone hole, causes of ozone hole****formation, polar vortex, effects of depletion of ozone hole****Water pollution-oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, international****standard of drinking water, processing of drinking water.****Soil pollution: water recycling, strategies to control environmental pollution, its****collection and proper methods of disposal****Biogeochemical cycles: water cycle, nitrogen cycle, carbon cycle and oxygen****cycle.**

**Breath of life: Air, Air pollution****Water a wonderful liquid****Water pollution****Biochemical cycles, Nitrogen cycle, Carbon cycle. Oxygen cycle.****The green house effect.**

**What is ozone layer. How does it protect the Earth. What are the causes**

of depletion of ozone layer. How can it affect day to day life of living

organisms

#### Improvement in Food Resources

- Improvement in crop yield.
- Animal Husbandry.
- Need for Intercropping.
- Cross Breeding.